Teressa goat in Nicobar group, Andaman goat in Andaman group of Islands and Barren Island goat in Barren Island are indigenous goats available in humid tropical Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. These first two breeds are domesticated and used as meat animals in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The population of goat has been decreased (4.25 %) from 18th (2007) to 20th (2019) livestock census in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Reduced goat population in Andaman and Nicobar Islands is mainly due to intensive inbreeding, poor breeding management, and lack of elite breeding bucks. Goats are following natural mating as a preferred breeding practice with limitations of inbreeding depression, disease transmission, and poor body confirmation of kids born by natural mating of inbred goats. This leads to loss of production and reproduction performances and ultimately economic loss to the farmers. These limitations would be overcome by intensive selection of elite bucks, semen collection, analysis and artificial insemination. In addition, oestrus synchronization (bring all the animals in heat at a time with use of hormones) improves management of goat farm, enhances fertility rate and improves the economic benefit of the farmer. A team of scientists in ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair standardised the technique for semen collection, liquid state preservation and artificial insemination in goats. Semen ejaculates were collected from the elite bucks, screened for pathogenic organisms, analysed the semen quality parameters, processed and preserved in liquid state. This preserved liquid semen is utilized for artificial insemination at institute farm as well as in farmers filed.Further, oestrus synchronization was implemented in the goat farm of ICAR-CIARI and got success rate of 80%. Artificial insemination is not only improving the production and reproduction performances, it also conserves the germplasm of native goat breeds of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Therefore, artificial insemination with oestrus synchronization is the best technique to propagate good quality goat germplasm and conserve the precious germplasm of native goats of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Thus we can improve the economic status of farmers. This work was carried out by Dr. P. Perumal, Dr. Jai Sunder, Dr. R. R. Alyethodi and Dr. A. K. De under leadership and guidance of the Director, Dr. E. B. Chakurkarand Head of the Animal Science Division, Dr. D. Bhattacharya.
Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology 1